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Francis I, by the grace of God elected Holy Roman Emperor, forever August, King in Germany and of Jerusalem, Archduke of Austria, Duke of Lorraine, Bar, and Grand Duke of Tuscany, Duke of Calabria, in Silesia of Teschen, Prince of Charleville, Margrave of Pont-à-Mousson and Nomeny, Count of Provence, Vaudémont, Blâmont, Zütphen, Saarwerden, Salm, Falkenstein, etc. The (secret) treaty between the Emperor and Francis was signed on May 4, 1736. He was a member of the Freemasons. Media in category "Francis I, Holy Roman Emperor" The following 41 files are in this category, out of 41 total. Francis at the age of 15 in his hunting attire. Corrections? In 1737, Lorraine became managed by France under terms resulting from the War of the Polish Succession. Maria Theresa arranged for Francis to become "Lord Lieutenant" (locumtenens) of Hungary in 1732. Francis II, Holy Roman Emperor's uncles and aunts: Francis II, Holy Roman Emperor's aunt was Queen Marie Antoinette of France Francis II, Holy Roman Emperor's uncle-by-marriage was King Louis XVI of France Francis II, Holy Roman Emperor's aunt was Archduchess Marie Elisabeth Of Austria Francis II, Holy Roman Emperor's aunt was Archduchess Marie Anna Of Austria Francis II, Holy Roman Emperor… In June 1732 he agreed to go to Pressburg. Not to be confused with Francis II, Holy Roman Emperor, later styled Francis I as Emperor of Austria. He is buried in tomb number 55 in the Imperial Crypt in Vienna. Charles consented to it only on condition that Francis make the sacrifice required by the French in order to end the War of the Polish Succession, namely, the cession of Lorraine to Stanisław Leszczyński (Stanisław I), for whom the French had failed to secure Poland. In compensation, Francis was allowed to succeed the childless Gian Gastone, last of the Medici grand dukes of Tuscany. Our editors will review what you’ve submitted and determine whether to revise the article. They were the founders of the Habsburg-Lorraine dynasty. Francis was born in Nancy, Lorraine (now in France), the oldest surviving son of Leopold Joseph, duke of Lorraine, and his wife Élisabeth Charlotte d'Orléans, daughter of Philippe, duc d'Orléans. During the War of the Austrian Succession (1740–48), Maria Theresa, apprehensive for Francis’ life, refused his repeated demands to be allowed to defend her inheritance by leading the Austrian Army. He is better remembered for his cultural interests. Though he had a happy childhood surrounded by his many siblings, his family knew Francis was likely to be a future Emperor (his uncle Joseph had no surviving issue from either of his two marriages), and so in 1784 the young Archduke was sent to the Imperial Co… etc. Francis was well content to leave the wielding of power to his able wife. From 1728 until 1737 he was Duke of Lorraine, but lost Lorraine when he had to give it to France. Charles was a member of the House of Wittelsbach, thus his reign as Holy Roman Emperor marked the end of three centuries of uninterrupted Habsburg imperial rule. Maria Theresa and Francis I had sixteen children—their youngest daughter was the future queen consort of France, Marie Antoinette (1755–1793). Emperor Charles VI favored the family, who, besides being his cousins, had served the house of Austria with distinction. From 1728 until 1737 he was Duke of Lorraine. He was King of Hungary, Croatia and Bohemia. On December 17, 1738 the couple traveled south, accompanied by his brother Charles to visit Florence for three months. Sorry, your search returned zero results for "francis i, holy roman emperor". He had designed to marry his daughter Maria Theresa to Francis' older brother Leopold Clement. Jul 26, 2015 - Francis I (German: Franz Stefan; Italian: Francesco Stefano; English: Francis Stephen; 8 December 1708 – 18 August 1765) was Holy Roman Emperor and Grand Duke of Tuscany, though his wife effectively executed the real powers of those positions. Maria Theresa mourned his death throughout the 15 years by which she survived him. During a subsequent visit to England, Francis was made a Master Mason at another specially convened lodge at Houghton Hall, the Norfolk estate of British Prime Minister Robert Walpole. With his wife, Maria Theresa, he was the founder of the Habsburg-Lorraine dynasty. Gian Gastone de' Medici, who died on 9 July 1737, was the second cousin of Francis. In 1744 Charles became governor of the Austrian Netherlands, a post he held until his death in 1780. In October 1738 he was back in Vienna. From 1728 until 1737 he was Duke of Lorraine. Francis was born in Florence, the capital of Tuscany, where his father reigned as Grand Duke from 1765–90. Francis I., Emperor of Austria', circa 1804, . Especially his mother Élisabeth Charlotte d'Orléans and his brother Prince Charles Alexander of Lorraine were against the loss of Lorraine. Francis I (Francis Stephen; 8 December 1708 – 18 August 1765) was Holy Roman Emperor and Grand Duke of Tuscany, though his wife effectively executed the real power of those positions. He also served as the first president of the German Confederationfollo… From the personal collection of Maestro Raymond Leppard (1927-2019). etc. As such, in 1729, he succeeded his father as the Duke of Lorraine. Soon after Napoleon created the Confederation of the Rhine, Francis abdicated as Holy Roman Emperor. Portret van Frans van Lotharingen (Frans I), … With his wife, Maria Theresa of Austria, he was the founder of the Habsburg-Lorraine dynasty. Born to Leopold II of Tuscany, he became the heir to Joseph II, the Holy Roman Emperor, who was his uncle. Francis I (Francis Stephen; 8 December 1708 – 18 August 1765) was Holy Roman Emperor and Grand Duke of Tuscany, though his wife effectively executed the real power of those positions.With his wife, Maria Theresa of Austria, he was the founder of the Habsburg-Lorraine dynasty. Desc: Charles VII was the Prince-elector of Bavaria from 1726 and Holy Roman Emperor from 24 January 1742 until his death in 1745. If something were to go wrong, Francis would become governor of the Austrian Netherlands. He also ruled as Francis I, the Emperor of Austria, and as Francis I, the King of Bohemia and Hungary. Francis I was the Holy Roman Emperor who along with his wife founded the Habsburg-Lorraine dynasty. In January 1737, the Spanish troops withdrew from Tuscany, and were replaced by 6,000 Austrians. Under its terms, Stanis?aw I, the father-in-law of King Louis XV and the losing claimant to the Polish throne, received Lorraine, while Francis, in compensation for his loss, was made heir to the Grand Duchy of Tuscany, which he would inherit in 1737. 10. ; 12 February 1768 – 2 March 1835) was the last Holy Roman Emperor from 1792 to 1806 and, as Francis I, the first Emperor of Austria from 1804 to 1835. After taking the throne of the Holy Roman Empire, the return of the ancestral duchy of Lorraine went nominally to his brother Prince Charles Alexander of Lorraine (who was however engaged in ruling the Austrian Netherlands), until succession under derivate house alliances resulted in Lorraine's annexation to France in 1766. The wedding was held on February 14, 1736. Though he had a happy child­hood sur­rounded by his many siblings, his fam­ily knew Fran­cis was likely to be a fu­ture Em­peror (his uncle Joseph had no sur­viv­ing issue from ei­ther of his two mar­riages), and so in 1784 the young Arch­duke was sent to the Im­pe­r­ial Co… . Francis I, (born Dec. 8, 1708, Nancy, Duchy of Lorraine—died Aug. 18, 1765, Innsbruck, Austria), Holy Roman emperor from Sept. 13, 1745; he was duke of Lorraine (as Francis Stephen) from 1729 to 1735 and grand duke of Tuscany from 1737. He had a natural fund of good sense and brilliant business capacity and was a useful assistant to Maria Theresa in the laborious task of governing the complicated Austrian dominions, but he was not active in politics. Francis Stefan of Lorraine succeeded his father as Duke of Lorraine in 1729. The last Holy Roman Empress and the first Empress of Austria by marriage to Francis II, Holy Roman Emperor. He assumed the title of Emperor of Austria in response to the coronation of Napoleon as Emperor of the French.Soon after Napoleon created the Confederation of the Rhine, Francis abdicated as Holy Roman Emperor. Holy Roman Emperor. Francis was born in Florence, the capital of Tuscany, where his father reigned as Grand Duke from 1765–90. He was very close to his brother and sister Anne Charlotte. Fran­cis was born in Flo­rence, the cap­i­tal of Tus­cany, where his fa­ther reigned as Grand Duke from 1765–90. Holy Roman Emperor and Grand Duke of Tuscany, though his wife, Maria Theresa, effectively executed the real powers of those positions. Encyclopaedia Britannica's editors oversee subject areas in which they have extensive knowledge, whether from years of experience gained by working on that content or via study for an advanced degree.... …marriage of Maria Theresa to Francis Stephen, duke of Lorraine, the latter’s domains would be united with Austria’s, and French plans for the acquisition of Lorraine would be thwarted. On January 24, 1737 Francis received Tuscany from his father-in-law, Until then, Maria Theresa was Duchess of Lorraine. In 1744 Francis' brother Charles married a younger sister of Maria Theresa, Archduchess Maria Anna of Austria (1718–1744). They arrived on January 20, 1739. Although nominally outranking his wife, Maria Theresa, archduchess of Austria and queen of Hungary and Bohemia, the capable but easygoing Francis always was overshadowed by her strong personality. They married on February 12 in the Augustinian Church, Vienna. Membership: Holy Roman Empire Association, Charter of the Holy Roman Empire Association, Heraldic Council of the Holy Roman Empire, Court of Nobility of the Holy Roman Empire, Council of the Holy Roman Empire Association, Free Imperial Cities of the Holy Roman Empire, Imperial immediacy of the Holy Roman Empire, Imperial Household of the Holy Roman Emperor, Powers and Titles of the Holy Roman Emperor, Order of the Ancient Nobility of the Four Emperors, Order of the Defeated Dragon - Ordo Draconum, Association of the Counts Arundell of Wardour, Jesus Christ - Jesus of Nazareth - Son of God, Holy Roman Emperor Sigismund of Luxemburg, Holy Roman Emperor Charles IV of Luxemburg, Holy Roman Emperor Louis IV of Wittelsbach, Holy Roman Emperor Henry VII of Luxemburg, Holy Roman Emperor Frederick I Barbarossa. In March 1736 the Emperor persuaded Francis, his future son-in-law, to secretly exchange Lorraine for the Grand Duchy of Tuscany. Although nominally outranking his wife, Maria Theresa, archduchess of Austria and queen of Hungary and Bohemia, the capable but easygoing … Heavily indebted and on the verge of bankruptcy at the end of the seven years war, the Austrian Empire was in a better financial condition than France or England in the 1780s. ; 12 February 1768 – 2 March 1835) was the last Holy Roman Emperor from 1792 to 1806 and, as Francis I, the first Emperor of Austria from 1804 to 1835. Holy Roman Emperor. When the War of the Polish Succession broke out in 1733, France used it as an opportunity to seize Lorraine, since France's prime minister, Cardinal Fleury, was concerned that, as a Habsburg possession, it would bring Austrian power too close to France. Francis I, by the grace of God elected Holy Roman Emperor, forever August, King in Germany and of Jerusalem, Archduke of Austria,Duke of Lorraine, Bar, and Grand Duke of Tuscany, Duke of Calabria, in Silesia of Teschen, Prince of Charleville, Margrave of Pont-à-Mousson and Nomeny, Count of Provence, Vaudémont, Blâmont, Zütphen, Saarwerden, Salm, Falkenstein, etc. By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. https://www.britannica.com/biography/Francis-I-Holy-Roman-emperor, Holy Roman Empire Association - Biography of Emperor Francis I. Francis II was the last emperor of the Holy Roman Empire, ruling from 1792 until 1806. Francis was a son of Emperor Leopold II (1747–1792) and his wife Maria Luisa of Spain (1745–1792), daughter of Charles III of Spain. As a result Elisabeth son's could claim by right of being a descendant of Margherita. Franz Stephan von Lothringen (1708-1765), known as Francis I, Holy Roman Emperor, married to Empress Maria Theresia. Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. Elisabeth of Parma had also wanted the Grand Duchy of Tuscany for her son Charles III of Spain; Gian Gastone de' Medici was childless and was related to Elisabeth via her great grandmother Margherita de' Medici. With his wife, Maria Theresa, he was the founder of the Habsburg-Lorraine dynasty. On February 1, Maria Theresa sent Francis a letter: she would withdraw from her future reign, when a male successor for her father appeared. Francis II, (born February 12, 1768, Florence—died March 2, 1835, Vienna), the last Holy Roman emperor (1792–1806) and, as Francis I, emperor of Austria (1804–35); he was also, as Francis, king of Hungary (1792–1830) and king of Bohemia (1792–1836). With his wife, Maria Theresa, he was the founder of the Habsburg-Lorraine dynasty. His marriage to Maria Theresa, who was Charles’s heiress, took place on Feb. 12, 1736. Fran­cis was a son of Em­peror Leopold II (1747–1792) and his wife Maria Luisa of Spain (1745–1792), daugh­ter of Charles III of Spain. Let us know if you have suggestions to improve this article (requires login). France had demanded that Maria Theresa's fiancé surrender his ancestral Duchy of Lorraine to accommodate the deposed King of Poland. Brit., 15th ed. However, his wife left him in charge of the financial affairs, which he managed well until his death. When Maria Theresa succeeded Charles VI (Oct. 20, 1740), she immediately appointed her husband coregent. This particular affair was remarked upon in the letters and journals of visitors to the court and in those of his children. Coat of Arms of Francis I - Holy Roman Emperor 1745-1765. Although fighting stopped after the preliminary peace, the final peace settlement had to wait until the death of the last Medici Grand Duke of Tuscany, Gian Gastone in 1737, to allow the territorial exchanges provided for by the peace settlement to go into effect. He was officially succeeded by his eldest son Joseph II although the real power remained with his wife. He was not excited about this position, but Maria wanted him closer to her. Francis I (Francis Stephen; 8 December 1708 – 18 August 1765) [1] was Holy Roman Emperor and Grand Duke of Tuscany, though his wife effectively executed the real powers of those positions.With his wife, Maria Theresa, he was the founder of the Habsburg-Lorraine dynasty. Britannica now has a site just for parents! Francis and the House of Lorraine received the Grand Duchy of Tuscany in the peace treaty that ended that war. He died suddenly in his carriage while returning from the opera at Innsbruck on 18 August 1765. Francis was a son of Emperor Leopold II (1747–1792) and his wife Maria Luisa of Spain (1745–1792), daughter of Charles III of Spain. found: Ency. He assumed the title of Emperor of Austria in response to the coronation of Napoleon as Emperor of the French. The Emperor considered other possibilities (such as marrying her to the future Charles III of Spain) before announcing the engagement of the couple. Francis I of Austria started out as Emperor Francis II (Franz II), the head of the Habsburg monarchy and ruler of the Holy Roman Empire. In June 1737 Francis went to Hungary again to fight against the Turks. 18th century Holy Roman Emperor from the Habsburg-Lorraine house. He hesitated three times (and laid down the feather before signing). In 1731 he was initiated into freemasonry (Grand Lodge of England) at a specially convened lodge in The Hague at the house of the British Ambassador, Philip Stanhope, 4th Earl of Chesterfield. Role Title Holding Repository; creatorOf: Francis I, Holy Roman Emperor, 1708-1765. In 1519 Francis sought election as Holy Roman emperor but lost out to Charles of Habsburg, who already was the king of Spain and ruler of the Netherlands. Napoleon defeated the Third Coalition at the Battle of Austerlitz in 1805. Francis I (German: Franz Stefan; Italian: Francesco Stefano; English: Francis Stephen; 8 December 1708 – 18 August 1765) was Holy Roman Emperor and Grand Duke of Tuscany, though his wife effectively executed the real powers of those positions. Francis was born in Florence, the capital of Tuscany, where his father reigned as Grand Duke from 1765–90. During the war he was elected Holy Roman emperor after the death of the emperor Charles VII (the elector Charles Albert of Bavaria), who was one of his wife’s chief adversaries. Holy Roman Emperor and Grand Duke of Tuscany, though his wife effectively executed the real powers of those positions. etc. With his wife, Maria Theresa, he was the founder of the Habsburg-Lorraine dynasty. Updates? Francis I was Holy Roman Emperor and Grand Duke of Tuscany, though his wife, Maria Theresa, effectively executed the real powers of those positions. Francis was a son of Emperor Leopold II (1747–1792) and his wife Maria Luisa of Spain (1745–1792), daughter of Charles III of Spain. Though he had a happy childhood surrounded by his many siblings,his family knew Francis was likely to be a future Emperor (his uncle Joseph had no surviving issue from either of his two marriages), and so in 1784 the young Archduke was sent to the Imperial Co… You will receive each autograph with a fine certificate of authenticity with a unique identification number. These arrangements were confirmed by the 1738 Treaty of Vienna. He was also Apostolic King of Hungary, Croatiaand Bohemiaas Francis I. English: HM Francis I ( 8 December 1708 – 18 August 1765) (born as François Stephen, later Francis III Stephen, Duke of Lorraine) was Holy Roman Emperor and Grand Duke of Tuscany. Francis I of Austria became Holy Roman Emperor in 1792. Though he had a happy childhood surrounded by his many siblings, his family knew Francis was likely to be a future Emperor (his uncle Joseph had no surviving issue from either of his two marriage… Francis I (German: Franz Stefan; Italian: Francesco Stefano; Scots: Francis Stephen; 8 December 1708 – 18 August 1765) wis Haly Roman Emperor an Grand Duke o Tuscany, thou his wife effectively executit the real powers o those poseetions.Wi his wife, Maria Theresa, he wis the foonder o the Habsburg-Lorraine dynasty. Francis II (German: Franz II. The eldest daughter of Ferdinand IV & III of Naples and Sicily (1751–1825) and Marie Caroline of Austria (1752–1814). From 1723 Francis, whose dynasty in Lorraine was closely connected with the Austrian Habsburgs, lived at the Viennese court of the Holy Roman emperor Charles VI. Description: Continental School 18th Century royal portrait of Francis I, Holy Roman Emperor, oil on canvas. The influence of Francis in government was inconsiderable except in economic matters. Francis was brought up in Vienna with Maria Theresa with the understanding that they were to be married, and a real affection arose between them. Autograph signature to letter : Vienna, to Valerio Publicola of Santa Cruz, 1763 Mar. On Leopold Clement's death, Charles adopted the younger brother as his future son-in-law. While every effort has been made to follow citation style rules, there may be some discrepancies. (Francis I, b. Francis II was the last Holy Roman Emperor. 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